KING TRUMPET POWDER (Pleurotus eryngii)
Dehydrated, finely ground King Trumpet mycelium cultured on organic whole oats supplemented with mineral Selenium
A large, stout, thickly-fleshed mushroom highly valued for its superior texture, flavor and shipping qualities. To further exploit this mushroom's unique and remarkable flavor, nutritive and medicinal qualities, we have initiated production of dehydrated, powdered fruitbodies and dehydrated, powdered mycelium cultured on organic oats. These new products are intended for the functional food, nutraceutical, and flavor/spice industries.
Known Active Constituents:
*Polysaccharides: Beta-1,3-D-glucan, Pleuran
Medicinal Activities and Modes of Action:
The anti-oxidative properties of both the mycelia and fruitbody of the King Trumpet mushrooms are primarily due to the high content of L- ergothioneine (LE), a naturally occurring antioxidant amino acid. LE is an essential amino acid, meaning that the body cannot produce it and must obtain it from outside sources. The compound has a very high ORAC value (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and is found in the human body in high levels in regions of high oxidative stress such as the kidneys, liver, and eyes. The King Trumpet has recently been found to contain up to 40 times the amount of L-ergothioneine found in wheat bran, the food previously thought to contain the highest level of this important antioxidant (Dubost et al., 2005). Antioxidants such as LE are believed to reduce the risk of chronic disease by limiting damaging cell oxidation in the human body.
The mycelia of the King Trumpet mushroom have the ability to extract and concentrate high levels of selenium from its environment (Stajic et al., 2006). The selenium in mushroom tissue is organically bound and much easier to absorb than inorganic selenium in most vitamin supplements. Selenium is another important antioxidant. Deficiencies of selenium have been associated with increased risk of cancer.
In studies of a closely related species, Pleurotus ostreatus, strong antitumor activity was observed when the mushroom was included in the diet of mice. The tuber inhibition rate reached 79.4%. Against a mammary tumor system (MM-46) there was an 89.7% inhibition rate (Mori et al., 1986). Yoshioka et al. (1972) reported an acidic polysaccharide fraction of this mushroom showed a 95% tumor inhibition rate against sarcoma 180. Zusman et al. (1997), reported that when rats were fed corncobs partially colonized by Oyster mushroom, they were significantly protected from treatment with chemicals which otherwise induced colon cancer in rats who were fed corncobs without mycelium. A lectin isolated from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus demonstrated antitumor activity in mice bearing sarcoma and hepatoma (Wang et al., 2000)The King Trumpet Oyster mushroms would be expected to have similar effects. Recent studies show that Pleurotus species naturally produce a form of Lavistatin, a patented drug (Bobek et al., 1999). Lavistatin was approved by the FDA in 1987 for treating high levels of blood cholesterol. In animal studies, oyster mushrooms significantly enhanced plasma cholesterol turnover by 50% with a corresponding 25% decrease in liver cholesterol levels as compared to controls (Bobek et al., 1995). Other animal studies have shown significant reductions in serum and liver cholesterol levels when dried and powdered mushrooms were included in the animal diets, even with high-fat diets and in animals with hereditary high cholesterol levels (Bobek et al., 1991a, 1991b &1993). Recent animal research from Japan (see section "Recent Unpublished Medical Research") concluded that the high fiber content of the King Trumpet mushroom (P. eryngii) promoted the discharge of cholesterol by the liver and inhibited absorption of cholesterol.
Bobek,, P., et al. 1991b. "Effects of mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and isolated fungal polysaccharide on the serum and liver lipids in Syrian hamsters with hyperlipidemia". Nutrition 7:105-108.
Bobek P., et al., 1991a. "Cholesterol-lowering effect of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus hereditary hypocholesterolemic rats". Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 35:191-195.
Bobek, P., O. Ozdin & M. Mikus, 1995. "Dietary oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) accelerates cholesterol turnover in hypercholesterolaemic rats". Physiological Research 44(5):287-291.
Bobek, P., E. Ginter, M. Jurcovicova, & L. Kuniak, 1999. "Actual reviews for selected medicinal properties of mushrooms. Cholesterol reducing effects of Pleurotus species (Agaricomycetidease) (Abstracts of papers published in 1991-1999". International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol 1, pp.371-380.
Bobek, P. and S. Galbavy, 2001. "Effect of pleuran (beta glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) on the antioxidant status of the organism and on dimethylhydrazine-induced pre-cancerous lesions in rat colon". British Journal of Biomedical Science 58(3):164-168. Dubost N. J., R. Beelman and D. Peterson, 2005. "Identification and quantification of ergothioneine in cultivated mushrooms by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry".
Gunde-Cimerman, N. 1999. "Medicinal value of the genus Pleurotus (Fr.) P.Kast. (Agaricales s.1., Basiomyceltes)" International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, vol. 1, pp. 69-80.
Mori, K. et al., 1987. "Antitumor effects of edible mushrooms by oral administration". From Wuesst, P.J. et al. (eds.). Cultivating Edible Fungi. Amsterdam: Elsevier:1-6.
Stajic, M. et al., 2006. "Screening of selenium absorption ability of mycelia of selected Pleurotus species". AgroFood Industry. May/June 17(3)
Wang, H., J. Gao, & T. Ng, 2000. "A new lectin with highly potent antihepatoma and antisarcoma activities from the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus". Biochem Biophys Res Commun 275(3):810-816.
Wang, H. and T. Ng, 2001. "Pleureryn, a novel protease from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 289(3):750-755. View Article
Yoshioka, Y. et al. 1972. "Studies on antitumor activity of some fractions from basidiomycetes. I. An antitumor acidic polysaccharide fraction of P. ostreatus" (Fr.) Quel. Chem Pharm Bull. 20:1175-1180.
Zusman, I., et al., 1997. "Role of apoptosis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p53 protein in chemically induced colon cancer in rats fed corncob treated with the fungs Pleurotus ostreatus". Anticancer Research May/June 17(3C):2105-2113.
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